Evaluation of Soil Fertility Status for Maize (Zea mays) Production in Moshi Rural, Kilimanjaro Region Tanzania

This study was carried out to assess the soil fertility status for maize (Zea mays) production in soils of sixteen villages of Moshi Rural, Kilimanjaro region in February 2019. Sixteen field soil samples were collected through random sampling approach. A total of sixteen soil parameters including soil reaction (pH), Organic carbon (OC), nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), and Sulfur (S) Exchangeable bases (Calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), and  potassium (K), Extractable micronutrients (Manganese (Mn), aluminum (Al), Zinc (Zn), Iron (Fe) and Boron (B) was tested in the soil laboratory in Agricultural Research Institute Mlingano Tanzania.

The soil analysis results indicated that, the studied soils were strongly acidic (5.0-5.9) indicating the need for liming to raise up the soil pH. The concentration of total nitrogen in Moshi Rural maize growing farms was very low to low (0.01 to 0.1%). The concentration of phosphorus ranges from 1-3 mg/l with an average of 2.742 suggesting that all studied areas should be considered for P supplementation. Exchangeable Na in the studied soils varies from 0.01 to 0.1 cmol (+) kg-1 with the average of 0.0154. This value suggests that exchangeable Na in the studied soils is very low with the implication that the studied soils are not salt affected. Micronutrients were seen as not a problem in the studied soils.

The studied soils generally are poor in soil fertility. Total nitrogen levels are very low, phosphorus is very low to medium and exchangeable bases and extractable micronutrients and equally very low to medium. Application of farm yard manure available in the locality, in combination with Diammonium phosphate or NPK is recommended at the average rate of 50 Kg per acre during planting and CAN, MOP and NPK during top-dress.

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An Economic Analysis of Rice Production in Pakistan: A Case Study

Rice is the second-largest crop in Pakistan as it contributes 1.3% share in the GDP of Pakistan.

For the last couple of year’s rice economy is caught up in a very complex situation. The present study was designed to find the yield gap, cost of production, technical efficiency and BCR (Benefit Cost Ratio) in rice production. To achieve the study objectives, data were collected from 150 respondents. These respondents were selected from eight villages of District Sheikhupura by using a purposive random sampling technique. Data were collected by using a well-developed and pre-tested questionnaire by conducting personnel interviews.

Results of descriptive analysis showed that the average farm size of the farmers was 14.85 acres. BCR (Benefit Cost Ratio) of fine and coarse rice varieties were 1.13 and 1.11, respectively. To Support rice production and to minimize the farmer’s losses, the Government should announce the support price of rice. The cost of production can be reduced by imposing strict vigilance and control over the input supplier.

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Simplified Compression Arch Action Model for R/C Beam-column Assemblages

A set of analytical equations are developed for calculating the beam-column assemblage flexure action capacity and compression arching action capacity under a middle column removal scenario. The suggested equations covered most of the main parameters affecting the assemblage behavior including seismic detailing, longitudinal reinforcement ratios, concrete confinement, and the contribution of concrete flanged slabs. The proposed analytical model for predicting the flexural and compression arching action capacities is validated with a large number of experimental results. The model provides a good estimation for 79 beam-column assemblages with several geometrical, reinforcement configurations, and material parameters. The mean values of the experimental to the theoretical ratio for calculating flexure and compression arching capacities are 1.15 and 1.16, respectively. The predictions of previous compression arch action models are found to be more conservative. Finally, the proposed model is utilized in parametric studies including all key parameters that affected resistance of the beam-column assemblages against progressive collapse.

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A Cross Sectional Clinical Analysis of Hemiplegia (Pakkavatham) Related to Diabetes Mellitus (Mathumeham) and Hypertension (Erathakothippu)

Background: Stroke (Pakkavatham) is the second leading mortality cause in global and death occurrence rates, rising in middle to older aged people. This condition is increased due to the dietary pattern and lifestyle modifications.

Aim: To determine about the interrelationship of Type II Diabetes Mellitus DM) and Systemic Hypertension (SHT) associated with hemiplegia.

Study Design: Cross Sectional Descriptive Observational Study.

Place and Duration of Study: This study work was carried out in 50 patients in Government Siddha Medical College and Hospital, Palayamkottai, Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu from April 2019 to September 2019.

Materials and Methods: This study was carried in 50 subjects (30 subjects in Out Patient Department (OPD) and 20 subjects in In Patient Department (IPD) were randomly selected and the data were collected by interviewing with a structured questionnaire. The ethical clearance was attained from the Institutional Ethical Committee.

Results: The highest incidence was male patients (38%) than female patients, the affected age group was 51-60 years. The prevalence was seen in male alcoholic consumers (46%), chronic smokers (44%) respectively. The incidence was mostly seen in hypertensive (70%) and non-diabetic (46%) male patients. Among the 50 patients, 14 patients (28%) had both SHT and DM. The most prevalence was seen in hypertensive patients than DM or SHT combined with DM patients. The moderate improvement was seen in the patients (32%) of control blood pressure and serum glucose level.

Conclusion: The SHT may influence in the prevalence of Pakkavatham and control blood pressure and serum glucose level may be improved the good prognosis in Pakkavatham patients.

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Isolation of Serratia Marcescens from the Soil and In vitro Prodigiosin Production as Source of Antibiotic, Active against Oxacillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

Background: Wide range of microorganisms produced secondary metabolites as microbial activities in extended habitats.

Aims: The aim of this research is the extraction of the red colored pigment, prodigiosin from Serratia marcesens isolated from the soil and evaluate its antibacterial activity against different strains of oxacillin/methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus S. aureus.

Study Design: Two isolates, namely, RMN1 and RMN2, belonging to the Genus, Serratia from two soil samples collected from two strategic locations in University of Abuja, Nigeria were isolated. The isolates were morphologically distinct on the basis of spore colour, aerial and substrate mycelium formation and production of diffusible pigment. Isolates were Gram stained, observed under a microscope and were seen to be Gram negative. Biochemical tests revealed that the two isolates were catalase and citrate positive, and were oxidase negative. One of the two isolates was observed to have significant antibiotic producing potential, and the antibacterial activity of the produced antibiotics (red pigment extracted from cultural supernatants of the isolates grown on Peptone glycerol agar) was assessed using the agar-well diffusion method and streaking agar method.

Results: The results indicated that the pigment extracted in vitro had varying antibacterial activity at different concentrations of 500 mg/ml, 250 mg/ml, 125 mg/ml and 62.5 mg/ml against four strains of the test organism (Staphylococcus aureus) titled S1 to S4, the extracted pigment was more effective at concentration 500 mg/ml against the antibiotic resistant S. aureus with the MIC at 125 mg/ml.

Conclusion: The results indicated that the soil of this region could be a good source of prodigiosin having antibacterial activity and thus enable the use of micro-organisms as biological control agents.

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Neuroblastoma in Early Childhood: A Case Report and Literature Review

Introduction: Neuroblastoma is an extremely rare pediatric neoplasm whose prognosis becomes poor as the age advances. It can be sporadic or nonfamilial in origin. It is primarily a tumor of abdominal origin from where it metastasis to lymph nodes, liver, intracranial and orbital sites, and central nervous system The purpose of this paper is to report a case in which scalp nodules and inguinal lymph node was the initial presenting sign of disseminated neuroblastoma in a 2 year-old child.

Case Presentation: We report a rare case of metastasis of neuroblastoma in a 2-year-old child presenting complain of fever for several weeks, anorexia, loss of weight , arthralgia and  multiple scalp nodules and inguinal lymph node enlargement . Biopsy was receive from the scalp and inguinal lymph nodes  showed undifferentiated  tumor tissue where  medium sized atypical blastoid tumor cells were located in clusters and sheets in an eosinophilic sometimes fibrillary background showing blood vessels. The sinuses were also infiltrated by these tumor cells. Immunohistochemically, Pan Leucocyte antigen was negative as also myogenin and CD99. However, CD 56 and synaptophysin are strongly positive and the neuroblastoma marker was weakly positive in the neuropil-like structures and the cytoplasm of some tumor cells.

Conclusion: The addition of our case to the literature offers new clinicopathological data useful for better defining the diagnosis. The differential diagnosis of neuroblastoma in a child presenting with multiple scalp nodules and inguinal lymph node enlargement should be consider.

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Saliva – An Efficient Tool in the Estimation of Glucose Level – A Comparative Study

Diabetes mellitus necessitate a repeated observation of serum glucose levels in the body. The commonly used diagnostic fluid for finding the glucose levels in the blood, but it is an invasive and unpleasant custom.

Methods: Twenty diabetic and non-diabetic subjects were randomly selected. The perceptible assessment of blood and salivary glucose levels were performed by the glucose oxidase enzyme method using glucose oxidase-peroxidase kit.

Results: A correlation was observed between HbA1c and salivary glucose of diabetic as well as non-diabetic subjects. The result showed a highly convinced positive correlation between salivary glucose and serum glucose in both diabetic patients and controls.

Conclusion: From this study, it was achieved that salivary glucose level was a nearly new noninvasive indicative technique, and used as a survey tool to estimate the glycemic state of Type II diabetes mellitus patients.

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Evaluation of Invertase and Amylase Activities of Latic Acid Bacteria Isolated from ‘Pupuru’ (An Indigenous African Fermented Cassava Staple Food)


Lactic acid bacteria produce lactic acid as the major end product during sugar fermentation. This study was carried out to isolate lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from pupuru; a staple cassava food. The result of the bacterial count indicated that the count ranges from 3.1 × 104 CFU/g to 8.7 × 104 CFU/g. Base on the Gram reaction, microscopic morphology and biochemical characteristics, the isolated LAB were identified as Pediococcus halophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus brevis, and Lactobacillus fermentum. Analysis of the percentage of occurrence of the lactic acid bacteria indicated that Lactobacillus casei (50.0%) was the most dominant LAB, P. halophilus, Lactobacillus brevis, L. fermentum were least occurring (16.7%). The amylase enzyme index showed that P. halophilus had no enzyme index while L. casei and L. fermentum had enzyme index of 4.00 mm while L. brevis had an enzyme index of 3.00 mm. Of the LAB isolated, only L. casei (0.064 µg/mL) had invertase activity. L. fermentum (0.099 µg/mL) and L. casei (0.08 µg/mL) showed considerable effect in the production of amylase. The result of this study indicated that Lactobacillus brevis, L. casei, and L. fermentum will be a viable addition in the amylase production industries while L. casei could be investigated further for enhancement in enzyme production.

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Changing Social Status of Dalits in Doaba Region of Punjab

Since Independence, India has made impressive progress in terms of growth, education, caste system and untouchability etc. Caste and untouchability have been much studied subjects of Indian social setting. Dalits comprised a group of people traditionally regarded as untouchables. The position of Dalits in the state of Punjab is quite different from that of Dalits in other parts of India. One of the distinguishing features of Dalits in Punjab is their numerical strength (31.9%). Other distinguishing features are their high literacy rate, emigration and active political participation. The study had a specific objective to access change in the social status of Dalits. The study was conducted in Doaba region of Punjab. Two blocks from each of the four districts of Doaba region were selected randomly. Two villages from each block were further selected and then 10 Dalit respondents from each village were interviewed personally with the help of an interview schedule. Thus total sample size was comprised of 160 respondents. The study found the increase in the education level of respondents. They were deviating from traditional occupation of agricultural labour to government jobs and to other ventures. A small percentage had moved to the upper caste locality in the village. Emigration and political participation were emerged as important factors in better social status. They were no more dependent on upper caste for cash or kind. Overall development of the society has affected the conditions of Dalits, the  affirmative action programmes of the government have contributed to the improvement of their conditions.

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The Extent Contribution of Independent Variables to the Knowledge and Adoption of Mobile Agro-advisory Services by the Farmers in Udupi District of Karnataka State of India

The study was conducted during 2016-17 in Udupi district of Karnataka state of India. The farmers who are registered for mobile agro-advisory services for receiving all agricultural information through SMS were considered as a target group for the study. There were 4000 registered Agro-met Advisory users and 1400 registered users in KVK. Among those registered farmers 40 farmers from each existing three taluks viz. Udupi, Karkala & Kundapur were selected as respondents for the study. Thus the sample size of the study comprises of 120 respondents. The contribution of selected independent variable with the knowledge and adoption were analysed. It could be observed from the results that, ‘F’ value (6.412) obtained was significant at one per cent level of significance indicating that all the independent variables put together contributed significantly to the variation in the extent of the knowledge level of the farmers. The coefficient of determination (R2) was 0.5316, which revealed that the variation in the extent of knowledge about mobile messages by the farmers was together explained by all the independent variables selected for the study. It could be observed from the results that, ‘F’ value (5.160) obtained was significant at one per cent level of significance indicating that, all the independent variables put together contributed significantly to the variation in the extent of adoption of mobile agro-advisory services by the farmers. The coefficient of determination (R2) was 0.408, which revealed that the variation in the extent of adoption of mobile agro-advisory services by the farmers was together explained by all the independent variables selected for the study. Hence, the present study helps the Krishi Vignan Kendras (KVKs) and Government for further improvement in providing mobile agro-advisory services to the farming community.

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